Bosnia-Herzegovina is recovering from a devastating three-year war which accompanied the break-up of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s.
The 1992-1995 conflict centred on whether Bosnia should stay in the Yugoslav Federation, or whether it should become independent.
It is now an independent state, but under international administration. Its three main ethnic groups are Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims), Croats and Serbs. The war left Bosnia’s infrastructure and economy in tatters. Around two million people – about half the population – were displaced.
The 1995 Dayton peace agreement set up two separate entities; a Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Hercegovina, and the Bosnian Serb Republic, or Republika Srpska, each with its own president, government, parliament, police and other bodies. Overarching these entities is a central Bosnian government and rotating presidency.
In February 2016 the country formally requested to join the European Union.
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Capital: Sarajevo
- Population 3.7 million
- Area 51,129 sq km (19,741 sq miles)
- Major languages Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian
- Major religions Christianity, Islam
- Life expectancy 73 years (men), 78 years (women)
- Currency convertible marka